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Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code. As a consequence, the amount of effort required to develop the application would be different (hours per function point). An experienced developer may implement certain functionality in fewer lines of code than another developer of relatively less experience does, though they use the same language. And IBM wanted to sort of make it the religion about how we got paid. This is undesirable, since increased complexity can lead to increased cost of maintenance and increased effort required for bug fixing. How much money we made off OS/2, how much they did. They are used to measur… Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code. Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code. While these models have shown good predictive power, they are only as good as the estimates (particularly the SLOC estimates) fed to them. The vast majority of existing quality models use source code metrics for measuring low level quality attributes. Software metrics can be classified into two types as follows: 1. Furthermore, inexperienced developers often resort to code duplication, which is highly discouraged as it is more bug-prone and costly to maintain, but it results in higher SLOC. Reduce overtime 5. The values of m, Halstead proposed the first analytic laws for, Number of modules that have been changed in the current release (F, Number of modules that have been added in the current release (F, Number of modules that have been deleted from the current release (F, Designing Software Metrics in Software Engineering, Object Oriented Metrics in Software Engineering, Software Engineering – What is Software Engineering? Counting SLOC as productivity measure has its caveats, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines (and generally spending more effort). However, a logical code counting utility developed for a specific language cannot be used for other languages due to the syntactical and structural differences among languages. Consider this snippet of C code as an example of the ambiguity encountered when determining SLOC: Depending on the programmer and coding standards, the above "line of code" could be written on many separate lines: Even the "logical" and "physical" SLOC values can have a large number of varying definitions. For example, most software systems reuse code, and determining which (if any) reused code to include is important when reporting a measure. Software measurement is a titrate impute of a characteristic of a software product or the software process. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. In the PBS documentary Triumph of the Nerds, Microsoft executive Steve Ballmer criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code. */. Another increasingly common problem in comparing SLOC metrics is the difference between auto-generated and hand-written code. The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same. For example, the efficiency of fault detection. And this is 50K-LOCs. Write Basic Objective and Need for Software Engineering, Definition of Software Engineering and Software Engineering Layers. Other objectives of using software metrics are listed below. However, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC. E=1.4L 0.93 DOC=30.4L 0.90 D=4.6L 0.26. /* Now how many lines of code is this? It was the visible output of the programmer, so it made sense to managers to count lines of code as a measurement of a programmer's productivity, even referring to such as "card images". Function point stands out to be the best measure of size in this case. In regards to software project cost and underestimation, it is ... Code metrics ! Before we introduce a series of technical metrics that (1) assist in the evaluation of the analysis and design models, (2) provide an indication of the complexity of procedural designs and source code, and (3) facilitate the design of more effective testing, it is important to understand basic measurement principles. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Many software metrics have been proposed that can measure properties of the source code. This page was last edited on 19 June 2020, at 20:25. Thus, SLOC can be effective in estimating effort. On the other hand, process based metrics that measure the changing nature of the software are collected over a certain period of time and might be related to developers, revisions and source code changes. A software metric is a standard of measure of a degree to which a software system or process possesses some property. This is the proportion of source code that automated tests cover. The goal behind using precise metrics and measurement in software engineering is to identify and control what can affect software development and the project as a whole. Identify areas of improvement 3. As you might imagine, every source had their own theories about which metrics mattered most. In many cases, an open source project attracts other developers who contribute to the project. The more management is focusing on lines of code, the more incentive the programmer has to expand his code with unneeded complexity. Do comments count? Lack of counting standards: there is no standard definition of what a line of code is. Ubiquitous measure: LOC measures have been around since the earliest days of software. There are several cost, schedule, and effort estimation models which use SLOC as an input parameter, including the widely used Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) series of models by Barry Boehm et al., PRICE Systems True S and Galorath's SEER-SEM. This section focuses on "Software Requirements" of Software Engineering. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Quantifying the Benefits of Using Function Points", "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size", "Counting potatoes: the size of Debian 2.2", "Debian Wheezy: US$19 Billion. These Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) should be practiced to improve the Software Engineering skills required for various interviews (campus interview, walk-in interview, company interview), placements, entrance exams and other competitive examinations. SLOC measures are somewhat controversial, particularly in the way that they are sometimes misused. The Software Engineering Laboratory established a model called SEL model, for estimating its software production. It is an authority within software engineering. Q: What are useful metrics to capture for source code? Maintainability measures how easily software can be maintained. There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC (LOC) and logical SLOC (LLOC). The two important software characteristics are: 1. Multiple choice questions on Software Engineering topic Software Metrics. Let's do everything today. Are data declarations included? At the code level, developers can tabulate the number of defects per KLOC to assess the frequency of defects. Since quantitative measurements are essential in all sciences, there is a continuous effort by computer science practitioners and theoreticians to bring similar approaches to software … By the same token, a hand-coded custom GUI class could easily be more demanding than a simple device driver; hence the shortcoming of this metric. These metrics can be computed for different stages of SDLC. Scope for automation of counting: since line of code is a physical entity, manual counting effort can be easily eliminated by automating the counting process. Assessing the quality of software can be a difficult, often subjective process. They are extracted from the source code of the software, and their values allow us to reach conclusions about the quality attributes measured by the metrics. Complexity metrics also provide feedback during the software project to help control the [design activity]. The following example shows a comparison of a "hello world" program written in C, and the same program written in COBOL - a language known for being particularly verbose. Unlike lines of code, the number of function points will remain constant. Smart contracts’ source codes have been validated by EtherScan, and each contract comes with its own associated software metrics as computed by the freely available software PASO. Developer's experience: implementation of a specific logic differs based on the level of experience of the developer. SLOC counting exhibits further accuracy issues at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages. Small utilities may be developed for counting the LOC in a program. Motivations for using metrics in software engineering ! SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate programming productivity or maintainability once the software is produced. And ensuring maintainable source code relies on a number of factors, such as testability and understandability. Many[2] have advocated the use of function points instead of SLOC as a measure of functionality, but since function points are highly correlated to SLOC (and cannot be automatically measured) this is not a universally held view. The work involved in creating this code cannot reasonably be compared to the work necessary to write a device driver, for instance. A directory of Objective Type Questions covering all the Computer Science subjects. Hence, number of lines of code differs from person to person. However, physical SLOC measures are sensitive to logically irrelevant formatting and style conventions, while logical SLOC is less sensitive to formatting and style conventions. Experiments have repeatedly confirmed that effort is highly correlated with SLOC[citation needed], that is, programs with larger SLOC values take more time to develop. Software Metrics MCQ. Software Measurement: A measurement is an manifestation of the size, quantity, amount or dimension of a particular attributes of a product or process. Some, Lack of cohesion with functionality: though experiments. IEEE defines metric as 'a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute.' It relates to the size, consistency, structure, and complexity of the codebase. Considering how software is developed during a release cycle (implementation, testing, bug fixing, release) I was thinking that one should be able to see some pattern in the lines of code that are changed in the code base; e.g. Where E= Efforts (Person Per Month) DOC=Documentation (Number of Pages) D = Duration (D, in months) L = Number of Lines per code Before writing this article, we digested the metrics proposed by the top 20 Google results in the domain of software metrics. Difference in languages: consider two applications that provide the same functionality (screens, reports, databases). For instance, graphical user interface builders automatically generate all the source code for a graphical control elements simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace. At the time that people began using SLOC as a metric, the most commonly used languages, such as FORTRAN and assembly language, were line-oriented languages. A comprehensive overview of these metrics is provided by the Software Engineering Institute [SEI]. During the last few years, Ethereum block explorer services have emerged as a popular project to explore and search Ethereum blockchain data such as transactions, addresses, tokens, smart-contracts' source code, prices and other activities … Code coverage. K-LOCs, K-LOCs, that's the methodology. Though organizations like SEI and IEEE have published some guidelines in an attempt to standardize counting, it is difficult to put these into practice especially in the face of newer and newer languages being introduced every year. Resources for measuring and assessing software quality. 1 comment line: tools must account for all code and comments regardless of comment placement. These languages were developed at the time when punched cards were the main form of data entry for programming. Complexity metrics can be used to predict critical information about reliability and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of source code [or procedural design information]. Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a great need for repositories where source code is acquired, filtered and classified. He also extrapolated that, had it been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have required about 8,000 person-years of development effort and would have cost over $1 billion (in year 2000 U.S. dollars). Reduce costsThese goals ca… And we kept trying to convince them – hey, if we have – a developer's got a good idea and he can get something done in 4K-LOCs instead of 20K-LOCs, should we make less money? Size and complexity of software. These software development metrics assess defects and vulnerabilities. Software Requirements MCQ. Context. Problems with multiple languages: in today's software scenario, software is often developed in more than one language. Very often, a number of languages are employed depending on the complexity and requirements. 2 logical lines of code (LLOC): what about all the work writing non-statement lines? Product Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software product. 4 physical lines of code (LOC): is placing braces work to be estimated? The number of function points would be exactly the same, but aspects of the application would be different. Lack of accountability: lines-of-code measure suffers from some fundamental problems. Using software process metrics, software engineers are able to assess the efficiency of the software process that is performed using the process as a framework. For coder's self-esteem: A: Number of SLOC (Source Lines of code) For coder's mother: A: Eat more of these soft French rolls and drink tea. To improve any process, it is necessary to measure its specified attributes, develop a set of meaningful metrics based on these attributes, and then use these metrics to obtain indicators in order to derive a strategy for process improvement. An intuitive metric: line of code serves as an intuitive metric for measuring the size of software because it can be seen, and the effect of it can be visualized. Source code metrics are essential components in the software measurement process. This study found that Debian GNU/Linux 2.2 included over 55 million SLOC, and if developed in a conventional proprietary way would have required 14,005 person-years and cost US$1.9 billion to develop. Process Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software development process. The metrics used are derived from the source code. This is a 20K-LOCer. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. Practice these MCQ questions and answers for preparation of various competitive and entrance exams. Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC project. Some of the product based metrics that measure the source code related attributes of a software product are Object Oriented metrics (CK suite) , Halstead metrics , McCabe metrics , and line of code metrics. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. Because he's made something smaller and faster, less K-LOC. depends on previous processing (S, Number of components having single entry and exit (S. Measures defined for data and control flow coupling are listed below. Metrics for design modeling allows developers or software engineers to evaluate or estimate quality of design and … Robert E. Park (while at the Software Engineering Institute) and others developed a framework for defining SLOC values, to enable people to carefully explain and define the SLOC measure used in a project. Having some heuristics and metrics that measure an application’s source code provides a useful starting point, and observing these metrics over time can identify important trends. While it is debatable exactly how to measure lines of code, discrepancies of an order of magnitude can be clear indicators of software complexity or man-hours. The metrics variation analysis presented in the previous section examined the effect over the source code metrics after source code refactoring. Debian 7.0 was released in May 2013. One of the applications is written in C++ and the other application written in a language like COBOL. Many empirical software engineering studies show that there is a need for repositories where source codes are acquired, filtered and classified. Modern software tools often have the capability to auto-generate enormous amounts of code with a few clicks of a mouse. Once measures are collected they are converted into metrics for use. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Metrics must be practical for real businesses to try out. Today, the most commonly used computer languages allow a lot more leeway for formatting. A similar study was later made of Debian GNU/Linux version 2.2 (also known as "Potato"); this operating system was originally released in August 2000. Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code excluding comment lines.[1]. Software Metrics Product vs. process Most metrics are indirect: ... ‘‘The nature of the software engineering process is too poorly understood to provide a basis for selecting a ... Programmer Productivity Metrics (2) Take total number of source code lines delivered and divide by Your price… FREE! Many useful comparisons involve only the order of magnitude of lines of code in a project. Metrics simply measures quantitative assessment that focuses on countable values most commonly used for comparing and tracking performance of system. towards the end of a project, if the code becomes more stable, one should see that fewer lines of code are modified per unit of time. Possibly including the whole iLife suite, not just the operating system and usually bundled applications. This forms a community where those involved improve and enhance the software. 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Lott: Metrics collection tools for C and C++ Source Code, Folklore.org: Macintosh Stories: -2000 Lines Of Code, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Source_lines_of_code&oldid=963439985, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from April 2012, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from April 2012, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles needing additional references from February 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with too many examples from May 2012, Wikipedia articles with style issues from May 2012, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with weasel words from September 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles that may contain original research from April 2011, All articles that may contain original research, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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